Agroforestry System

⏱️ 2019 - ongoing

πŸ“£ Planting the future with agroforestry

🎯 Development of Modular Pepper Plantation Agroforestry Model

πŸ† 4 workshops held, 8 change makers from 5 countries

🀝 CAN, VSS, ReNature, Preta Terra, One Tree Planted

Watani: Agroforestry System

⏱️ 2019 - ongoing

πŸ“£ Planting the future with agroforestry

🎯 Development of Modular Pepper Plantation Agroforestry Model

πŸ† 4 workshops held, 8 change makers from 5 countries

🀝 CAN, Verstegen, ReNature, Preta Terra, One Tree Planted



Watani or Wanatani (in bahasa) or agroforestry is a collective name for land-use systems and technologies where woody perennials (trees, shrubs, palms, bamboos, etc.) are deliberately used on the same land-management units as agricultural crops and/or animals, in some form of spatial arrangement or temporal sequence. Agroforestry can also be defined as a dynamic, ecologically based, natural resource management system that, through the integration of trees on farms and in the agricultural landscape, diversifies and sustains production for increased social, economic and environmental benefits for land users at all levels. This approach of land-use management system is crucial especially to smallholder farmers and other rural people because it can enhance their food supply, income and health.

Sowing Diversity, 
Harvesting Security

Agroforestry is the science and practice of applying ecological concepts, practices and knowledge in the design and management of farms. It offers a robust set of solutions for the ecological and economic pressures that agriculture is facing today:

  • Increasing ecological resilience of agricultural systems, especially with regard to extreme weather conditions.
  • Preservation of biodiversity and natural raw materials such as organic carbon in the soil, water, genetic diversity of crops and natural enemies of pest.
  • Improving economic stability with more diverse sources of income, a distribution of labor needs over time and a reduction in the vulnerability to price fluctuations of raw materials.
    Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions due to increased carbon sequestration, reduced dependency on fossil fuels and fossil fuels based agricultural inputs

Demo Plot Design

The system was designed for Bangka island region, in Indonesia, where the climate is considered tropical wet-dry (KΓΆppen), characterized by distinct wet and dry seasons, with yearly precipitation of 2.514 mm, most of it occurring in the summer, from November to May. The mean regional temperature is 27 C. The 2 plots where the design will be implemented are around 6 km far from water bodies and relatively flat (31 m) in the coastal plain. The soil type is classified as Spodosol, which are ashy gray, acidic soils with a strongly leached surface layer. Their suitability for cultivation is limited to acid-tolerant crops and orchards, provided that sufficient lime and fertilizer are applied.

The design was based on self-sustainable organic white-pepper agroforestry production, considered no use of any artificial fertilizer and chemical inputs, provisioning service species as the main source of nitrogen, biomass and other not-measurable nutrients. It was considered a diverse of characteristics of agroforestry systems compositions and interactions, mainly considering strata, succession and roots interaction along with soil properties. A pre-selection list was used as the main source of species to compose the system design. The main crop of the design is pepper, for white pepper production (Pipper nigrum), a labor-intense commodity traditionally cultivated in Indonesia, though in current decline due to low productivity, plant diseases, lack of quality seeds and difficulties in water supply.

Demo Plot Growth 


tons CO2 storage over the next 20 years

The hundreds of trees in our agroforestry plant will store CO2 while maturing over the next 20 years. A detailed biomass growth curve will be calculated based on the species planted and their expected growth. We will monitor the amount of stored CO2. The current estimate of 480 tons CO2 storage in the next 20 years is based on the number of trees and an average storage per year.

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current resilience against extreme weather

Agroforestry has a better resilience to extreme weather, like drought or abundant rain. In dry periods, agroforestry is able to hold or access more water. In wet periods, agroforestry can cope better with extra precipitation. We measure the resilience of our agroforestry plant by combining vegetation growth with short-term and long-term drought information based on rainfall.

24 March 2022


We help farmers initiated their own agroforestry system. It can be migration from conventional system or making a new plot in desired piece of land. Here is some effort we put to realize agroforestry system in Bangka Island.

8 Change makers

Volunteer joined agroforestry training from 5 countries.

4 Workshops

Trainings workshop held to socialize & promote agroforestry in Bangka.

33 Demo farms

Local farmers design and make their own agroforestry demo farm.

13K Pepper seeds

Pepper seedling distributed to farmers to initiated agroforestry.

14K Support plants

Numbers of supporting tree to hold pepper distributed to farmers.

1K Fruit seedlings

Numbers of fruit seedling distributed to farmers to develop agroforestry.

Demo Farms

Training Modules

Keanekaragaman Tanaman dan Ekonomi Pola Wanatani

Learn about characteristic of agroforestry system.

Summary Slide

Desain Kebun Wanatani

Learn about how to design your own agroforestry system.

Summary Slide

Tanah dan Air

Learn more about soil and water as very important resources for farming and life as a whole.

Summary Slide


Project Partnership

We are in good company.